Culture & History Digital Journal, Vol 7, No 1 (2018)

Zelda and Scott Fitzgerald and psychoanalysis: The construction of Tender Is the Night (1934)


https://doi.org/10.3989/chdj.2018.011

Nuria Esteve
Independent post-doctoral researcher. Psychiatry. Private practice. Atención al desarrollo integral (ADI), Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9109-4393

Rafael Huertas
Instituto de Historia, CSIC, Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4543-7180

Abstract


This article analyzes the biographical and contextual elements which enabled Fitzgerald to incorporate the psychiatry of the time into Tender Is the Night (1934). The content of the novel is linked to Zelda Fitzgerald’s mental illness and her admission to a Swiss psychiatric clinic in 1930. It also identifies the parallels between the doctors who treated the couple and those that appear in the novel, examining the elements used to construct fictional characters inspired by major figures in psychiatry during this period, including Oscar Forel, Eugen Bleuler and Carl Gustav Jung. Lastly, it evaluates the weight and significance of the discourse and the psychiatric and psychoanalytic concepts utilized by Fitzgerald in the novel.

Keywords


Medicine and literature; Carl Gustav Jung; Schizophrenia; Literary modernism; 20th century’s Narrative

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Ackerknecht, Erwin H. (1963) "A letter of Emil Kraepelin to Auguste Forel". Schweizer Archiv für Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie, 91: 11-13. PMid:14010866

Appignanesi, Lisa and Forrester, John (2000) Freud’s Women. 2nd ed. Other Press, New York. PMid:10870940

Bercherie, Paul (1980) Les fondements de la clinique Histoire et structure du savoir psychiatrique. Navarin, Paris. PMid:11634519

Bleuler, Eugen (1911) Dementia praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien. Franz Deuticke, Leipzig.

Borch-Jacobsen, Mikkel (1996) Remembering Anna O.: A Century of Mystification. Routledge, New York.

Brad, Dana (2000) "Tourism and Modernity in Tender Is the Night". In F. Scott Fitzgerald: New Perspectives, edited by Bryer, Jackson; Margolies, Alan and Prigozy, Ruth. University of Georgia Press, Athens: 130-141.

Bruccoli, Matthew Joseph (2002) Some Sort of Epic Grandeur: The Life of F. Scott Fitzgerald. 2nd rev. ed. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia.

Carotenuto, Aldo (1980) Diario di una segreta simmetria. Sabina Spielrein tra Jung e Freud. Astrolabio, Rome.

Ciges, Miguel (2012) "Preface". In Fitzgerald, Zelda, Resérvame el vals. Román y Bueno editores, Granada.

Colodrón, Antonio (1983) Las esquizofrenias. Siglo XXI, Madrid.

Covington, Coline and Wharton, Barbara (2003) Sabina Spielrein: Forgotten Pioneer of Psychoanalysis. Brunner-Routledge, New York. PMCid:PMC140987

Dalzell, Thomas G. (2007) "Eugen Bleuler 150: Bleuler's reception of Freud". History of Psychiatry, 18: 471-482. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957154X07077556 PMid:18590024

Donaldson, Scott (1983) Fool for Love: A Biography of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Delta, New York.

Ellmann, Richard (1959) James Joyce. Oxford University Press, New York.

Espejo, Beatriz (2011) "F. Scott Fitzgerald: Cronista y personaje". Revista de la Universidad de México, 88: 44-50. http://www. revistadelauniversidad.unam.mx/8811/pdf/88espejo.pdf. [accessed 27/August/2014]

Falzeder, Ernst (2007) "The story of an ambivalent relationship: Sigmund Freud and Eugen Bleuler". Journal of Analytical Psychology, 52 (3): 343-368. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5922.2007.00666.x PMid:17537145

Fitzgerald, Francis Scott (1920) This Side of Paradise. Scribner, New York.

Fitzgerald, Francis Scott (2001) [1925] The Great Gatsby. Wordsworth Editions Limited, Hertfordshire.

Fitzgerald, Francis Scott (2003) The Short Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Scribner, New York.

Fitzgerald, Francis Scott (2010) [1934] Tender Is the Night. Penguin Books, London.

Fitzgerald, Francis Scott and Fitzgerald, Zelda (2003) Dear Scott, Dearest Zelda: The Love Letters of F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald. Bloomsbury, New York.

Fitzgerald, Zelda (1932) Save Me the Waltz. Scribner, New York.

Forel, Auguste (1937) Out of My Life and Work. Translated by B. Miall. W.W. Norton, New York.

Freud, Sigmund (1959) [1910] "The future prospects of psychoanalytic therapy". In Collected Papers. Basis Books, New York: 285-296.

Frost, Jessica (2016) "F. Scott Fitzgerald and mental illness in Tender is the Night". Hektoen International. A Journal of Medical Humanities, 8. http://hekint.org/f-scott-fitzgerald-and-mentalillness-in-tender-is-the-night/. [accessed 3/May/2017]

Garrabé, Jean (2003) La schizophrénie. Un siècle pour comprendre. Empecheurs de penser en Rond, Paris.

Grube, John (1965) "Tender is the Night: Keats and Scott Fitzgerald". Dalhousie Review, 44 (4): 433-441.

Gruhle, H. W. (1913) "Bleulers schizophrenie und Kraepelins dementia precox". Zeitschrift für die gesamte neurologie psychiatrie, 17: 114-133. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02897592

Haynal, André (1992) "Introduction". In The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sándor Ferenczi, Volume 1, 1908-1914. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, London.

Joos-Bleuler, Tina (2011) "Being a Member of the Bleuler Family". Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37 (6): 1115-1117. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbr135 PMid:22013083 PMCid:PMC3196944

Jung, Carl Gustav (1913) Versuch einer Darstellung der psychoanalytischen Theorie. Franz Deuticke, Leipzig und Wien.

Jung, Carl Gustav (1915) The Theory of Psychoanalysis. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. Publishing Company. New York.

Kerr, Lisa (2012) "A lost decade: exploring F. Scott Fitzgerald´s contribution to the illness canon through the doctor-nurse series and other healthcare stories of the 1930s". Medical Humanities, 38 (2): 83-87. https://doi.org/10.1136/medhum-2012-010190 PMid:22628406

Klein, Alexandre (2010) "Nouveau regard sur l'Ecole hypnologique de Nancy à partir d'archives inédites". Le Pays Lorrain, 4: 337-348.

Lawrence, David Herbert (1921) Psychoanalysis and the Unconscious. Martin Secken, London. PMid:19871870 PMCid:PMC2140441

Lawrence, David Herbert (1922) Fantasia of the Unconscious. T. Seltzen, New York.

Lejeune, Philippe (1975) Le Pacte autobiographique. Seuil, Paris.

Makari, George (2012) Revolución en mente. La creación del psicoanálisis. Quinta del Agua Ediciones, Barcelona.

Messenger, Chris (2014) Tender is the Night and F. Scott Fitzgerald's Sentimental Identities. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.

Micale, Mark S. (editor) (2004) The Mind of Modernism: Medicine, Psychology, and the Cultural Arts in Europe and America, 1880-1940. Stanford University Press, Stanford.

Milford, Nancy (1975) Zelda Fitzgerald. Penguin Books, England. PMCid:PMC285625

Munthe, Axel (1929) The Story of San Michele. John Murray, London.

Novella, Enric J. and Huertas, Rafael (2010) «El síndrome de Kraepelin- Bleuler-Schneider y la conciencia moderna: una aproximación a la historia de la esquizofrenia». Clínica y Salud, 21 (3): 205-219. https://doi.org/10.5093/cl2010v21n3a1

Parent, André (2003) "Auguste Forel on Ants and Neurology". The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 30 (3): 284-291. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0317167100002754 PMid:12945958

Roazen, Paul (1997) "Elma Lauryk: Ferenczi´s Step-Daughter". European Journal of Psychoanalysis, 5. http://www.psychomedia.it/jep/number5/roazen.htm. [accessed 20/May/2015]

Sass, Louis A. (1992) Madness and Modernism: Insanity in the Light of Modern Art, Literature, and Thought. Basic Books, New York.

Simón, Trinidad (2014) Juego limpio: Sabina Spielrein entre Jung y Freud. Editorial Psimática, Madrid.

Sklar, Robert (1967) F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Last Laocoön. Oxford University Press, New York. PMid:6063150

Turnbull, Andrew (editor) (1963) The Letters of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Wehr, Gerhard (1987) Jung: A Biography. Random House, New York.

Wexelblatt, Robert (1987) "F. Scott Fitzgerald and D.H. Lawrence: Bicycles and Incest". American Literature, 59 (3): 378-388. https://doi.org/10.2307/2927122




Copyright (c) 2018 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact: historia.digital@cchs.csic.es

Technical support: soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es