Culture & History Digital Journal, Vol 4, No 1 (2015)

La Nación, Peronism, and the Origins of the Cold War in Argentina


https://doi.org/10.3989/chdj.2015.004

José Antonio Sánchez-Román
Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain

Abstract


This article deals with the international dimension of Argentine domestic policies by exploring one of the strategies of the conservative daily newspaper La Nación, between 1946 and 1950, in order to challenge Juan Perón’s hegemony. La Nación presented the Peronist regime as akin to the totalitarian regimes established under the Soviet Union’s vigilance. This is not surprising, but revealing the complex ideological mechanisms employed by La Nación in its strategy is a noteworthy endeavor. This work will provide a thorough exploration of the process through which La Nación shifted from its former opposition to Peronism, initially identified as a Nazi-Fascist movement, to a new articulation of the regime as a totalitarian one. To some extent this was not so different from the strategy that the United States’ (US) intellectual elites were carrying out in order to justify their struggle against a former ally in war as a continuation of purpose and not a rupture. Yet, the most interesting aspect of this evolution in the Argentine case is that it emerged in an autonomous way as a result of specific national and international phenomena. This shows that the characteristics of the early phase of the Cold War were shaped by transnational processes of convergence rather than US hegemony alone.

Keywords


Peronism; totalitarianism; La Nación; Cold War ideology

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Adler, Les K. and Paterson Thomas G. (1970) "Red Fascism: The Merger of Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia in the American Image of Totalitarianism, 1930's-1950's". The American Historical Review, 75 (4): 1046-1064. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1852269

Artinian, Juan Pablo (2015) "Representations of Peronism as Totalitarianism in the view of the Socialist Party during a Cold War Period in Argentina (1950-1955)". Culture & History Digital Journal, 4 (1): e005. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/chdj.2015.005

Ajmechet, Sabrina (2011) "La Prensa durante el primer peronismo". In Las derechas en el Cono Sur, siglo XX. Actas del Taller de Discusión, compiled by Bohoslavsky, Ernesto. Universidad General Sarmiento, Los Polvorines: 153-164.

Bethell, Leslie and Roxborough, Ian (1988) "Latin America between the Second World War and the Cold War: Some Reflections on the 1945-1948 Conjuncture". Journal of Latin American Studies, 20 (1): 167-189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022216X00002522

Bethell, Leslie and Roxborough, Ian (1992) Latin America between the Second World War and the Cold War, 1944-1948. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. PMCid:PMC1024866

Bohoslavsky, Ernesto (2011) "De la euforia antifascista a la desilusión con la democracia realmente existente. Una comparación entre las corrientes liberales de Argentina y Brasil (1943-1946)". In I Workshop Argentino Brasile-o de Historia Comparada, edited by P. Fogelman. Ediciones de FFyL, Buenos Aires: 175-191.

Bradley, Mark Philip (2010) "Decolonization, the Global South and the Cold War, 1945-1962". In The Cambridge History of the Cold War. Volume I. Origins, edited by Leffler, Melvin P. and Westad, Odd Arne. CUP, Cambridge: 464-485.

Brands, Hal (2010) Latin America's Cold War. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Escudé, Carlos (1983) Gran Breta-a, Estados Unidos y la declinación argentina, 1942-1949. Editorial de Belgrano, Buenos Aires.

Engerman, David C. (2010) "Ideology and the Origins of the Cold War, 1917-1962". In The Cambridge History of the Cold War. Volume I. Origins, edited by Leffler, Melvin P. and Westad, Odd Arne. CUP, Cambridge: 20-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/chol9780521837194.003

Grandin, Greg and Joseph, Gilbert M. (editors) (2010) A Century of Revolution: Insurgent and Counterinsurgent Violence during Latin America's Long Cold War. Duke University Press, Durham. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/9780822392859

Halperín Donghi, Tulio (1999) Vida y muerte de la República verdadera (1910-1930). Ariel, Buenos Aires.

Halperín Donghi, Tulio (2003) La Argentina y la tormenta del mundo. Ideas e ideologías entre 1930 y 1945. Siglo XXI, Buenos Aires.

Halperín Donghi, Tulio (2009) Una Nación para el desierto argentino. Prometeo, Buenos Aires

Hitchcock, William I. (2010) "The Marshall Plan and the Creation of the West". In The Cambridge History of the Cold War. Volume I. Origins, edited by Leffler, Melvin P. and Westad, Odd Arne. CUP, Cambridge: 154-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/chol9780521837194.009

James, Daniel (2006) Resistencia e integración. El peronismo y la clase trabajadora argentina, 1946-1976. Siglo XXI, Buenos Aires.

Jervis, Robert (2010) "Identity and the Cold War". In The Cambridge History of the Cold War. Volume II. Crises and Détente, edited by Leffler, Melvin P. and Westad, Odd Arne. CUP, Cambridge: 22-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/chol9780521837200.003

Lanús, Juan Archibaldo (1984) De Chapultepec al Beagle. Política exterior argentina: 1945-1980. Emecé, Buenos Aires.

Leffler, Melvyn P. (1992) A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

Leffler, Melvyn P. (2010) "The Emergence of an American Grand Strategy, 1945-1952". In The Cambridge History of the Cold War. Volume I. Origins, edited by Leffler, Melvin P. and Westad, Odd Arne. CUP, Cambridge: 67-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/chol9780521837194.005

Maier, Charles S. (1977) "The Politics of Productivity: Foundations of American International Economic Policy After World War II". International Organization, 31: 607-633. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300018634

Manela, Erez (2007) The Wilsonian Moment: Self-Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Mazower, Mark (2009) No Enchanted Palace: The End of Empire and the Ideological Origins of the United Nations. Princeton University Press, Princeton. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9781400831661

Morgenfeld, Leandro (2012) Relaciones peligrosas. Argentina y Estados Unidos. Capital Intelectual, Buenos Aires. Nállim, Jorge (2009) "An Unbroken Loyalty in Turbulent Times: La Prensa and Liberalism in Argentina, 1930-1946". EIAL: Estudios Interdisciplinarios de America Latina y el Caribe, 20 (2): 35-62.

Ninkovich, Frank A. (1981) The Diplomacy of Ideas. US Foreign Policy and Cultural Relations 1938-1950. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Oren, Ido (2003) Our Enemies and Us: America's Rivalries and the Making of Political Science. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Paradiso, José (2002) "Vicisitudes de una política exterior independiente". In Nueva Historia Argentina. Volume VIII. Los a-os peronistas (1943-1955), edited by Torre, Juan Carlos. Sudamericana, Buenos Aires: 523-572.

Plotkin, Mariano (1993) Ma-ana es San Perón. Propaganda, rituales políticos y educación en el régimen peronista (1946-1955). Ariel, Buenos Aires. PMCid:PMC238143

Prezioso, Stéfanie (2008) "Antifascism and Anti-totalitarianism: The Italian Debate". Journal of Contemporary History, 43 (4): 555-572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022009408095415

Rabinbach, Anson (2006) "Moments of Totalitarianism". History and Theory, 45 (1): 72-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2303.2006.00349.x

Rapoport, Mario (1988) ¿Aliados o neutrales? La Argentina frente a la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Eudeba, Buenos Aires.

Rapoport, Mario (1989) "Foreign and Domestic Policy in Argentina during the Second World War: The Traditional Political Parties and the Military Regime, 1943-1945". In Argentina between the Great Powers, 1936-46, edited by Tella, Guido Di and Watt, D. Cameron. St. Antony's, Oxford: 77-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-10977-7_5

Rodríguez, Miguel (2012) "La perspectiva latinoamericana de la potencia cultural estadounidense". In Guerra Fría y Propaganda. Estados Unidos y su cruzada cultural en Europa y América Latina, edited by Ni-o, Antonio and Montero, José Antonio. Biblioteca Nueva, Madrid: 277-309.

Roxborough, Ian (1994) "Labor Control and the Postwar Growth Model in Latin America". In Latin America in the 1940s: War and Postwar Transitions, edited by Rock, David. California University Press, Berkeley: 248-262.

Ruiz Jiménez, Laura (1998) "Peronism and Anti-imperialism in the Argentine Press: 'Braden or Perón' Was Also 'Perón is Roosevelt'". Journal of Latin American Studies, 30 (3): 551-571. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022216X9800515X

Ruiz Jiménez, Laura (2006) La Argentina con porvenir. Los debates sobre la democracia y el modelo de desarrollo en los partidos y la prensa (1926-1946). Biblioteca Nueva, Madrid.

Sidicaro, Ricardo (1993) La política mirada desde arriba: las ideas del diario La Nación 1909-1989. Sudamericana, Buenos Aires.

Stephanson, Anders (2000) "Liberty or Death: The Cold War as US Ideology". In Reviewing the Cold War, edited by Westad, Odd Arne. Frank Cass, London: 81-99.

Torre, Juan Carlos (2002) "Introducción a los a-os peronistas". In Nueva Historia Argentina. Volume VIII. Los a-os peronistas (1943-1955), edited by Torre, Juan Carlos. Sudamericana, Buenos Aires: 11-77.

Walter, Richard J. (2001) "La derecha y los peronistas, 1943-1955". In La derecha argentina. Nacionalistas, neoliberales, militares y clericales, edited by Rock, David et al. Ediciones B, Buenos Aires: 247-274.

Wood, Bryce (1985) The Dismantling of the Good Neighbor Policy. University of Texas Press, Austin.




Copyright (c) 2015 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact: historia.digital@cchs.csic.es

Technical support: soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es