Culture & History Digital Journal <p><strong>Culture &amp; History Digital Journal</strong> is a scientific journal published by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto de Historia</a> at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CCHS</a>, aimed to contribute to the methodological debate among historians and other scholars specialized in the fields of Human and Social Sciences, at an international level.</p> <p>Using an interdisciplinary and transversal approach, this journal poses a renovation of the studies on the past, relating them and dialoguing with the present, breaking the traditional forms of thinking based on chronology, diachronic analysis, and the classical facts and forms of thinking based exclusively on textual and documental analysis. By doing so, this journal aims to promote not only new subjects of History, but also new forms of addressing its knowledge.</p> <p>Founded in 2012, it was born directly as an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. The final version of some selected articles may be published in advance, immediately upon acceptance and correction.</p> <p><strong>Culture &amp; History Digital Journal</strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> / Social Sciences Edition (JCR), <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Social Sciences Citation Index</a> (SSCI) y <a title="A&amp;HCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Arts &amp; Humanities Citation Index</a> (A&amp;HCI); <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators), <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ERIH Plus</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Impact Factor</strong> 2019 (2 years): <strong>0.135</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Impact Factor</strong> 2019 (5 years): <strong>n/a</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank:</strong> <strong>93</strong>/100 (Q4, History)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2019: <strong>0.00008</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2019: <strong>n/a</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> History<br />Source: © University of Washington©, <a title="EigenFACTOR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en-US Culture & History Digital Journal 2253-797X <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. Historic Spaces and Architectures in Videogames Manuel Sánchez García Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 9 1 e001 e001 Mass Media and the postmodern urban experience. From <em>Metropolis</em> to <em>Blade Runner</em>; from cinema to virtual reality Since their inception in the XIX Century, mass media have been crucial in shaping the image of the urban environment on our collective subconscious. In the early 20th Century, newspapers and magazines bustled with exacerbated but fascinating images of the city of the future, which appeared as hyperbolic portrayals of the perception that the contemporary citizen had of his own effervescing modern environment. Cinema soon joined this process, as a privileged, mechanical eye that could record, analyse and reinvent the accelerated modern city and its evolution. Fritz Lang’s <em>Metropolis</em> (1926) epitomized the powers of the new medium, providing the viewers with a window that allowed them to see this Lacanian <em>Other</em> come alive, somehow encapsulating their own experience of the new urban reality. Over half a century later films such as <em>Alien</em> (1979) and <em>Blade Runner</em> (1982) took the torch as fictional future representations of postmodern space that provided the postmodern citizen with a suitably hyper-real substitute of reality. Three decades after that, the videogames and virtual reality experiences based on those very films promise to break the final barrier, allowing us to cross to the other side of the membrane, and freely move through that which is, literally, an <em>augmented</em> reality. Luis Miguel Lus Arana Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 9 1 e002 e002 10.3989/chdj.2020.002 <em>Conpsumptionscapes</em>: videogame stereotypes and Latin-American cities environments. Case: Uncharted 3: Drake’s Deception / Uncharted 4: The Thief End The consumption landscape refers to the context in which the daily basic needs of a society are determined. The small store in the neighborhood and the street market are architectural structures or urban spaces which shape the lives of cities as we know them today. Shopping centres are the evolution of these building formats and can characterize contemporary life. The exercise proposed by this article is to review the condition of the contexts of consumption in which the narrative of video games are developed through the study and selection of cases (<em>Uncharted 3: Drake’s Deception / Uncharted 4: A Thief’s End</em>). These demonstrate that the urban landscape with which our cities are represented appears as scenarios loaded with stereotypes. The emphasis of this research is on the representation of the historical Latin American city as a spatially modelled and stereotyped territory where the narrative is contextualized. This article does not focus on how the story develops within a commercial space but instead proposes a transversal idea that the consumption contexts are landscapes determined by cultural logics where the plot occurs. Consumption landscapes are the simultaneous spatial, cultural and historical constructions that give meaning to a narrative and represent an augmented reality of our cities: extensive, immersive and suggestive, but also perverse. Claudio Rossi Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 9 1 e003 e003 10.3989/chdj.2020.003 Aesthetic uses of the past and limits in the reconstruction of historical spaces inside a videogame Along the last years we have assisted to the release of a great number of videogames set in the past as, for example, Assassin’s Creed: Origins (Ubisoft, 2017). This game offered the player the possibility to tour the city of Alexandria during the first century before Christ. My intention in this text is to develop the use of the past in the reconstruction of urban digital spaces through three video-game sagas, <em>BioShock</em> (Irrational Games y 2K Marin, 2007 – 2013), <em>Uncharted</em> (Naughty Dog, 2006 – 2017) and <em>Assassin’s Creed</em> (Ubisoft, 2007 – 2017). Each one of them will serve us to develop and examine the aesthetic uses of the past in the reconstruction of urban digital spaces through the proposed concepts: design, consumption and production. Irrational Games’ saga will help us to understand the first concept, the Naughty Dog one the second and the Ubisoft one the third. After these three sections we will elaborate a final section where we will build the video-game as a mass culture medium with other media of same scope and shared features. Alberto Venegas Ramos Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 9 1 e004 e004 10.3989/chdj.2020.004 Spanish colonial architecture as selective authenticity in historical digital games Buildings play a major role in computer games set in the past, both as gameplay components and as elements of historical realism. Varying on the genre of the game they perform different functions, from the transition and movement possibilities they allow the player in action-adventure games like <em>Assassin’s Creed</em> (Dow, 2013) to sedentary headquarters in strategy and management titles such as <em>Age of Empires</em> and <em>Civilization</em> (Bonner, 2014). My goal with this paper is to analyse the purposes of Spain’s colonial architecture in computer games set in the period of the Spanish Monarchy’s rule overseas. In order to achieve it, I will use Adam Chapman’s theoretical and methodological framework to understand the games’ historical epistemologies and ludonarratives, and Salvati and Bullinger’s concept of <em>selective authenticity</em> to analyse the role of these buildings in evoking the past and giving meaning to it. Aided by these lenses, I will try to unravel the master narratives behind these titles and how they give meaning to the history of Spain and its former colonies. Fede Peñate Domínguez Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 9 1 e005 e005 10.3989/chdj.2020.005 Urban archetypes applied to the study of cities in historic contemporary fictions. Symbolic urban structures in <em>Age of Empires III</em> and <em>Bioshock Infinite</em> In “The Idea of a Town: Anthropology of Urban Form” (1976), architecture historian Joseph Rykwert defined six archetypes used in Etruscan rites for the foundation of urban settlements, which continued to be used in Classical Greece and Ancient Rome. He proposed to use these same categories for the study of cities in different eras, as a methodology to develop a global urban history. This paper projects Rykwert’s concepts to cities created during the XXI century, specifically those designed for video games with historical themes, and provides the reader with an experimental methodology for assessing digital architectures and environments. Spatial and narrative archetypes will be identified in two different video games, as well as their connections to imaginaries born in the Classic period. In <em>Age of Empires</em> (Ensemble Studios, 1996-2005) urban foundation corresponds to the idea of the town as a place for dominating territory. Their variable structure is grounded on a systemic set of rules that benefits tactic configurations designed by players. In contrast, <em>Bioshock Infinite</em> (Irrational Games, 2013) proposes an immobile storyline built around the city as its leading narrative voice. Its urban spaces direct the action through archetypes such as the “center”, the “labyrinth”, and the “door”. Manuel Sánchez García Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 9 1 e006 e006 10.3989/chdj.2020.006 Professors, Charlatans, and Spiritists: The Stage Hypnotist in Late Nineteenth-Century English Literature In this paper I will explore the stereotype of the stage hypnotist in fiction literature through the analysis of the novellas <em>Professor Fargo</em> (1874) by Henry James (1843-1916) and <em>Drink: A Love Story on a Great Question (1890)</em> by Hall Caine (1853-1931). Both <em>Professor Fargo</em> and <em>Drink</em> form part of a literary subgenre referred to variously as “Hypnotic Fiction”, “Trance Gothic” or “mesmeric texts”. The objective of my research, which examines both the literary text itself and its historical and social context, is to offer new and interesting data that may contribute to the development of a poetics or theory of the literary subgenre of hypnotic fiction. In this sense, this article is an essential contribution to a broader analysis that I have been working on, focusing on highlighting the generic features of this type of literature by analysing the stereotypes of hypnotists in fiction. Juan Marcos Bonet Safont Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 9 1 e007 e007 10.3989/chdj.2020.007 The Indelible Markers of Twentieth-Century Spanish Antifeminism In twentieth-century Spain, the conservative political ideology maintained a gender discourse and an ideal of femininity that remained broadly unchanged. The democratic regimes established in the country, first after the reign of Alfonso XIII and then after the Franco dictatorship, did nothing to substantially fragment the country’s conservatism with regard to its proponents’ view of the function and role that women should fulfil in society. In an attempt to trace the indelible markers of Spanish antifeminism, this article examines three of conservatism’s key ideas related to gender: a differentiated consideration of male and female natures; a rejection of feminism; and a conception of the family as the preferred locus for the development of the so-called natural functions of women. Teresa María Ortega López Núria Félez Castañé Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 9 1 e008 e008 10.3989/chdj.2020.008 Physical Violence, Public Violence: Searching for Mechanisms of Social Domination The explanation of the worldwide spread and long-term maintenance of economic asymmetries and centralized and hierarchical political structures is a major concern for sociological and humanistic disciplines. This problem may be formulated as a paradox when exploited and victimized groups overtly support the social order that subdues them. Archaeology is able to address this problem from a broad and long-term perspective. The aim of this paper is to discuss the implications of public, lethal physical violence in the context of class societies. These are characterized by economic exploitation, centralization of political power, labour specialization and heavy restrictions of vital and cognitive perspectives for most of the population. It is suggested that key social relations under these conditions could be similar to the hostage-captor bond. Henceforth, inferences based on social and psychobiological reasoning are suggested in order to solve the aforementioned social paradox. Rafael Micó Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 9 1 e009 e009 10.3989/chdj.2020.009 Past, present and future of Virtual Reality: Analysis of its technological variables and definitions Developments in Virtual Reality (VR) technology are currently arousing great scientific interest because in just a few years, VR has found its niche not only in the specialised public, but also in society in general and in different contexts, thanks to its many uses in different contexts and the decreasing price of VR viewing devices. To many, this technology may appear to be a novelty of the 21st century, but its origins go back several decades. Taking into account these aspects, this article aims to analyse the past and present of VR from two perspectives: one focused on its technological development and one on its conceptual evolution. This historical overview, in turn, will allow us to address the future applications of VR in different disciplines. The study provides the reader with an indepth analysis of VR that will contribute to the understanding of this technology and its uses. Adriana Paíno Ambrosio M. Isabel Rodríguez Fidalgo Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 9 1 e010 e010 10.3989/chdj.2020.010