Culture & History Digital Journal 2021-06-30T00:00:00+02:00 Prof. Consuelo Naranjo Orovio (Ms.) Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Culture &amp; History Digital Journal</strong> is a scientific journal published by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto de Historia</a> at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CCHS</a>, aimed to contribute to the methodological debate among historians and other scholars specialized in the fields of Human and Social Sciences, at an international level.</p> <p>Using an interdisciplinary and transversal approach, this journal poses a renovation of the studies on the past, relating them and dialoguing with the present, breaking the traditional forms of thinking based on chronology, diachronic analysis, and the classical facts and forms of thinking based exclusively on textual and documental analysis. By doing so, this journal aims to promote not only new subjects of History, but also new forms of addressing its knowledge.</p> <p>Founded in 2012, it was born directly as an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. The final version of some selected articles may be published in advance, immediately upon acceptance and correction.</p> <p><strong>Culture &amp; History Digital Journal</strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> / Social Sciences Edition (JCR), <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Social Sciences Citation Index</a> (SSCI) y <a title="A&amp;HCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Arts &amp; Humanities Citation Index</a> (A&amp;HCI); <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators), <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ERIH Plus</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Impact Factor</strong> 2020 (2 years): <strong>0.463</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Impact Factor</strong> 2020 (5 years): <strong>n/a</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank:</strong> <strong>64</strong>/288 (Q1, History)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2020: <strong>0.00056</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2020: <strong>n/a</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> History<br />Source: © University of Washington©, <a title="EigenFACTOR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Constructing “Pure” and “Applied” Science in Early Francoism 2021-04-28T11:46:37+02:00 Agustí Nieto-Galan <p>The paper discusses several appropriations of the categories of “pure” and “applied” science (mainly in chemistry) in early Francoism. At the height of a crusade that criminalized “pure” science as inherently attached to the culture of the Second Spanish Republic, the category of “pure” assumed spiritual, religious and anti-materialist values in the early education policies of the new regime, in the context of the newly founded national research centre, the <em>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</em> (CSIC). At the same time, relevant Francoist scientists stressed the high moral status of a new utilitarian, “applied” science, to efficiently serve the material needs of the country. As a result, the categories of “pure” and “applied” science, and their rhetorical use in public addresses and propaganda, became useful tools for building a strong alliance between science and power that cemented the dictatorship.</p> 2021-04-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) The cultural significance of physics and evolution in Francoist Spain: continuity and development in the autarchic period 2021-04-28T12:24:51+02:00 Clara Florensa Xavier Roqué <p>Science took on several distinct uses and meanings under Francoism. It was exhibited as a token of intellectual prowess, deployed as a mighty diplomatic tool, applied as a resource for industry, and invoked in support of National Catholicism. However, in order to successfully fulfill all these roles, science had first to be cleansed and purified, for it was historically bound to materialism, atheism, and positivism. Physics had developed a mechanical worldview that precluded spiritual agency, and the theory of evolution had deprived man of his privileged place in nature. Could these developments be reversed? Classical physics would not easily serve the needs of the new National Catholic state, but modern physics might do, acting as a model and a tool for biological reasoning. In this paper we describe the various attempts by Spanish scientists, philosophers, and intellectuals to enlist modern physics and a revised version of evolution in the construction of the new regime. They strove to show their spiritual value, to sever them from a soul-less modernity, and to reinstate them within a grand universal Catholic tradition. We discuss the import of their arguments for the simultaneous debates about time, space, matter, life, and evolution, exploring the affinities and tensions between the inert and the living world.</p> 2021-04-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) From arsenic to DDT: Pesticides, Fascism and the invisibility of toxic risks in the early years of Francoist Spain (1939-1953) 2021-04-28T12:55:14+02:00 Silvia Pérez-Criado José Ramón Bertomeu Sánchez <p>This paper reviews the way in which Spanish agriculture climbed onto the pesticide treadmill. We claim that Fascist policies and expert advice assembled in the early 1940s accelerated the introduction of pesticides into Spanish agriculture and promoted the emergence of the Spanish pesticide industry in the times of autarky. Agricultural engineers were the key protagonists in this process, but other human and non-human actors also played a pivotal role: a new pest (the Colorado beetle), Francoist politicians, farmers, landowners and industry managers. Our focus is on the use of pesticides against the Colorado beetle (the main threat to the potato crop), and the transition from arsenical pesticides to DDT during the 1940s. We discuss how the politics of autarky offered new opportunities for developing agronomic programmes and the chemical industry and led to the creation of the Register of Pesticides in 1942. We also discuss the role of these regulations in concealing the risks of pesticides from farmers and food consumers. Arsenic pesticides became sources of slow poisoning and tools for social control while reinforcing the alliance of agricultural engineers and Fascist politicians in their autarkic and authoritarian projects. When DDT arrived in Spain, the agricultural engineers praised the low toxicity it had demonstrated (compared to lead arsenate) in its first uses in public health and in military campaigns in Italy. Indeed, the data concerning its potential dangers disappeared from view thanks in part to a large multimedia campaign launched to promote the introduction of the new organic pesticides in Spanish agriculture, which is described at the end of the paper.</p> 2021-04-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Atomic Routes and Cultures for a New Narrative on Franco’s Regime 2021-04-28T13:22:12+02:00 Ana Romero de Pablos <p>A decision by two Spanish companies to start producing nuclear-based electrical energy was the beginning of a journey that led two Spanish engineers to the United States and Canada in 1957. They wanted to learn about the reactor technology that North American companies were developing, contact specialized consultants to explore possible consultancy services, and search out political, economic, and financial support to make their project viable. The trip’s travel log suggests that the route they set off on was decisive in convincing the dictatorship’s political, industrial, and economic powers of the importance of nuclear energy; this journey had a direct influence on subsequent construction of Spanish nuclear facilities and on the policies designed to manage it. In this article I suggest exploring this journey and its record to reflect on how nuclear energy participated in building a new narrative on the Franco regime, one that showed Spain as a modern, internationally-connected State capable of incorporating the latest atomic technologies.</p> 2021-04-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Racism, Hispanidad and social hierarchy in medicalpsychiatric thought during early Francoism. The work by Misael Bañuelos (1936-1941) 2021-04-28T14:13:24+02:00 Ricardo Campos <p>A range of discourse and racial proposals are analyzed and confronted in the article that were pursued from within Medicine and Psychiatry during early Francoism. In particular, Misael Bañuelo’s openly biologistic vision that was influenced by the racial theories put forward by Nazism are discussed. His confrontation with the racial conception sustained by followers of <em>Hispanidad</em> (Spanishness) and National Catholicism are analyzed, especially that with Vallejo Nágera.</p> 2021-04-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) “The Faustian spirit of the technical world”. Mental illness and cultural criticism in Franco’s Spain 2021-04-29T10:55:24+02:00 Enric J. Novella <p>Taking into account the almost constitutive affinity of mental medicine and cultural criticism, it should not be surprising that, given its particular conflict with modernity, General Franco’s dictatorship was a period of intense flowering of conservative psychiatric essay writing, Starting from the fears of a possible physical and moral regression of “Hispanity” due to the artificiality of modern life, the infiltration of liberalism and the erosion of traditional values, the genre shifted its interest towards an analysis of the contemporary “neurotic society” that, with philosophical reference points such as Ortega or Heidegger, pointed to the excesses of instrumental reason, “mechanization” and the “hyper-technification” of the modern world as one of the main sources of malaise and psychic suffering.</p> 2021-04-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Between modernity and tradition: the formation of a psychoanalytical culture during the Franco dictatorship 2021-04-29T11:32:13+02:00 Silvia Lévy Lazcano <p>The aim of this work is to analyze the process by which psychoanalysis categories joined scientific and popular culture in Francoism. To do so, we will start with the criticism and reinterpretations that different experts did on Freud’s theory to adapt it to the new political-social context. This analysis will allow us to show how reappropriation and signification of a progressive and modern theory was achieved based on the doctrinal principles of national-Catholicism. From here on, we will analyze the incorporation of psychoanalytic language and ideas into several mass media, confirming the consolidation of psychoanalysis as a cultural framework in Spain.</p> 2021-04-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Institutionalizing cultural Europeanism: between transnationalism and national identity (1948-1954) 2021-04-29T12:03:14+02:00 Luis Domínguez Castro José Ramón Rodríguez Lago <p>Cultural Europeanism is a variant of the process of European integration attested within the framework of the Cold War. It will be mostly anti-communist, although it will couch elements favouring West-East dialogue. The governments will promote an intergovernmental model based on multilateral cooperation and national identity, and put into practice in institutions such as the Western Union or the Council of Europe. Non-governmental organizations, such as the European Movement, will be committed to a more transnational model based on the affirmation and promotion of the idea of Europe through institutions such as the College of Europe, the European Centre for Culture or the European Cultural Foundation. Within cultural Europeanism, networks of secondary institutionalization, such as educational seminars, ended up having as much or more impact than the primary entities from which they emerged.</p> 2021-04-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Deans of humanitarianism and perfidy. The collaboration of the Diplomatic Missions of Argentina and Chile with the Francoist cause during the Spanish Civil War (and after), 1936-1969 2021-04-29T12:39:09+02:00 Carlos Píriz <p>During the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939, some thirty Diplomatic Missions opened their doors and create new sites for the reception of persecution victims under the protection of the right of asylum. However, beyond the humanitarian role, a tendentious collaboration of some of their delegates with the rebels could be seen from the beginning. Argentina and Chile, which held the Diplomatic Deanship in those years, were two prime examples of this. A good number of their representatives used various strategies to help the coup plotters of 1936, such as the refuge, care and irregular extraction of people or espionage. At the same time, they played a role that alternated between searching for consensus with other Diplomatic Missions (mainly the Latin American ones), which really meant demanding that those other legations follow their lead, and denouncing the excesses of the consolidated republican rearguard, especially on the international scene. A situation which tarnishes the image of the legitimate Spanish governments. Once the contest ended, many of those collaborators were praised and rewarded by the Franco regime, and other fascists regimes. This research focuses on demonstrating, based on original documentation and providing new and compelling data, that close (and proven) relationship.</p> 2021-04-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Medieval echoes. Reflection on political theories and cultural trends from European Middle Ages during American Wars of Independence and Between the States 2021-04-29T12:56:32+02:00 Xosé M. Sánchez Sánchez <p>This article examines the influence of formulations and lines of European medieval thought and culture during the two main processes of American political history: the American Wars of Independence and Between the States. In these moments of enormous significance, we can perceive a series of formulations alive since Middle Age centuries; principles with a no evident but relevant influence in mentality and perception during the conflicts. These are: federalism, constitutionalism, canon law, the concept of war, the reception of the work of Dante Alighieri and his ‘Divina Commedia’ and the reception of chivalric medieval culture and the Arthurian tradition.</p> 2021-04-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Front-page illustrations and political powers in Early Modern Spanish journalism 2021-04-29T13:20:42+02:00 Carmen Espejo-Cala Francisco Baena Sánchez <p>This paper explores the representation of political powers in the front-page illustrations of Early Modern Spanish newspapers. The knowledge about Early Modern European journalism has undergone a remarkable development in recent decades: however, research on the form of the first newspapers is scarce. The paper presents a corpus of 162 news pamphlets and gazettes published in Seville between 1618 and 1635. An analysis follows considering the presence of engravings on the cover page and their classification. This insight leads to the conclusion that the image did not play a decisive role to draw the attention of readers, even in sensationalist news pamphlets. The illustration is used not to present the events narrated but to stress the genre of the print; about half of the corpus prints have a cover engraving that reproduces a coat of arms, associated with the monarchical power in two thirds of the news sheets: Spanish journalism experienced a growing officialization, prior to the appearance of the first official newspaper of the kingdom, Gazeta Nueva (1661). Also, a small group of news sheets with ecclesiastical or nobiliary coat of arms reveals the interest of local powers in the flourishing of the journalistic market</p> 2021-04-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Introduction to the Special Issue “Cultural Histories of Science in Franco’s Spain” 2021-04-28T11:19:46+02:00 Enric J. Novella Ricardo Campos 2021-04-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)