Culture & History Digital Journal <p><strong>Culture &amp; History Digital Journal</strong> is a scientific journal published by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto de Historia</a> at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CCHS</a>, aimed to contribute to the methodological debate among historians and other scholars specialized in the fields of Human and Social Sciences, at an international level.</p> <p>Using an interdisciplinary and transversal approach, this journal poses a renovation of the studies on the past, relating them and dialoguing with the present, breaking the traditional forms of thinking based on chronology, diachronic analysis, and the classical facts and forms of thinking based exclusively on textual and documental analysis. By doing so, this journal aims to promote not only new subjects of History, but also new forms of addressing its knowledge.</p> <p>Founded in 2012, it was born directly as an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. The final version of some selected articles may be published in advance, immediately upon acceptance and correction.</p> <p><strong>Culture &amp; History Digital Journal</strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> / Social Sciences Edition (JCR), <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Social Sciences Citation Index</a> (SSCI) y <a title="A&amp;HCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Arts &amp; Humanities Citation Index</a> (A&amp;HCI); <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators), <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ERIH Plus</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2020 (2 years): <strong>0.463</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2020 (5 years): <strong>n/a</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF:</strong> <strong>64</strong>/288 (Q1, History)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2020: <strong>0.77</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>189</strong>/488 (Q2, History)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2020: <strong>0.00056</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2020: <strong>n/a</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> History<br />Source: © University of Washington©, <a title="EigenFACTOR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en-US Culture & History Digital Journal 2253-797X <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. Maps and Cartographic Ideas in Motion: Circulation, Transfers and Networks. Introduction to the Special Issue José María García Redondo José María Moreno Martín Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-10-20 2021-10-20 10 2 e013 e013 The teaching of biological evolution in Mexican socialist textbooks in the 1930s <p>This manuscript presents the genesis and development of the so-called “Mexican socialist” school system of the 1930s, whose leading stakeholder was President Lázaro Cárdenas. At the beginning of the socialist project, Mexico underwent the most politicized and controversial education reform in its modern history. Much has been said about this ambitious project of social change. However, a thorough exam is still needed, especially on how socialist values were globalized and appropriated in the Mexican scenario regarding the new State project of basic education. In this sense we are interested in how science was portrayed in Natural Sciences textbooks, especially focusing in biological evolution.</p> Erica Torrens Rojas Juan Manuel Rodríguez Caso Ana Rosa Barahona Echeverría Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-10-20 2021-10-20 10 2 e022 e022 10.3989/chdj.2021.022 Juarez and Maximilian. Stories and interpretations in film and literature <p>This paper approaches the relations between history and fiction through analysis of two works: the Franz Werfel drama’s&nbsp;<em>Juarez und Maximilian</em>&nbsp;(1924), and the Miguel Contreras Torres movie’s,&nbsp;<em>Juárez y Maximiliano</em>&nbsp;(1934). Both works intend to tell us the happened during the Second Mexican Empire, Werfel with the Austrian gaze and Contreras with the Mexican gaze. We go inside to biography and context of authors, as well as the reception of the drama and movie in the local press, to understanding the political implications of the representations of the past. Finally, we analyze the philosophy of history implied in both Werfel and Contreras, and your relations with creation’s context.</p> María del Sol Morales Zea Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-10-20 2021-10-20 10 2 e023 e023 10.3989/chdj.2021.023 Making a Global Image of the World: Science, Cosmography and Navigation in Times of the First Circumnavigation of Earth, 1492-1522 <p>The voyages of exploration and discovery during the period of European maritime expansion and the immense amount of information and artefacts they produced about our knowledge of the world have maintained a difficult, if not non-existent, relationship with the main historiographical lines of the history of early modern science. This article attempts to problematize this relationship based on a historical account that seeks to highlight the scientific and institutional mechanisms that made the Magellan-Elcano voyage, the first modern voyage, possible. The text argues that this voyage was the first modern voyage because it allowed the construction of a new scientific and cartographic image of the globe and contributed to our understanding of the world as a global world, altering the foundations on which modern European economic and geographic thought was based. In that sense, the voyage was something extraordinary, but not completely unexpected. It responded to a complex process of expansionary policy and technical development that dated back to the 15<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;century, which in 1519 was sufficiently articulated to carry out a great feat.</p> Antonio Sánchez Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-10-20 2021-10-20 10 2 e014 e014 10.3989/chdj.2021.014 Circulation and Contacts in Sixteenth Century New Cartography: Spain, Portugal and Italy <p>Cartographic information was highly coveted in sixteenth century Europe, especially when it came from Portugal or Spain. Maps and nautical charts produced in the Iberian Peninsula were loaded with sensitive information about the new lands discovered, which made them the object of desire of rival or curious powers. Faced with this, the Spanish and Portuguese institutions tried to limit the excessive dispersion of cartographic material, using several legislative instruments. In theory, the circulation of cartographic information beyond Iberian imperial boundaries was strictly controlled, so the possibility of leakages or exchanges seemed very unlikely. In practice, both leaks and contact occurred constantly. The objective of this article is to illustrate this idea from the identification and analysis of concrete historical events in which the circulation of cartographic information took place. The chronological framework chosen is the sixteenth century, with Spain, Portugal and Italy as the main sites.</p> José María Moreno Madrid Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-10-20 2021-10-20 10 2 e015 e015 10.3989/chdj.2021.015 The Cartographer Sets Sail: Eyewitness Records and Early Modern Maps <p>In this article I examine early nautical charts and&nbsp;<em>isolarii</em>, or island books illustrated with maps, for evidence that indicates the maps were made on the basis of first-hand observation by the cartographer. There are very few claims on early nautical charts that the charts were created based on the cartographers’ own observations. I suggest that these claims are rare because chart-making was more an artistic enterprise than as a medium for recording discoveries. This conception of nautical charts changed with the advent of the Age of Discoveries, and claims that charts were made based on eyewitness information become more common. The case with&nbsp;<em>isolarii</em>&nbsp;is very different, although the maps in&nbsp;<em>isolarii</em>&nbsp;derive from the nautical chart tradition. Some of the creators of&nbsp;<em>isolarii</em>&nbsp;claim that their works were based on first-hand experience, but not always truthfully. Other authors neither sailed among the islands they describe nor claim to have visited them.</p> Chet Van Duzer Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-10-20 2021-10-20 10 2 e016 e016 10.3989/chdj.2021.016 On the Translation of Founding Narratives into Cartographic Images: America in Le Testu’s Cosmographie Universelle (1556) <p>This article analyzes the links between the first travel accounts of the New World and the production of cartographic images of America in Guillaume Le Testu’s&nbsp;<em>Cosmographie Universelle</em>&nbsp;(1556). Produced in 1556 and dedicated to Admiral of France Gaspard de Coligny, the Norman pilot’s manuscript atlas was created in the context of growing French colonial interest in&nbsp;<em>Terra Brasilis</em>. The transposition of America’s founding narratives into cartographic images as presented in Le Testu’s&nbsp;<em>Cosmographie</em>&nbsp;is interpreted here as an act of translation&nbsp;<em>lato sensu</em>. The translation of the continent’s travel accounts in the strictest sense of the word, and the adaptation of New World information to new audiences and political contexts are also examined in the analysis of this manuscript nautical atlas.</p> Carolina Martínez Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-10-20 2021-10-20 10 2 e017 e017 10.3989/chdj.2021.017 New Spain’s Cartography within Global Geography: José Antonio de Alzate’s Maps of North America <p>Several printed versions of José Antonio de Alzate’s&nbsp;<em>Nuevo Mapa Geográphico de la América Septentrional</em>&nbsp;(1768) are known to exist. Despite his progressive changes to the map, the Mexican polymath saw it as a single “cartographic model” that he perfected over time. This article analyses his sources and working methods, as well as his contacts with other authors in New Spain and Europe. By distinguishing between mechanisms of passive and active circulation of both resources and cartographic methods, we can note an apparent change in Alzate’s practice, one which was stimulated by his interaction with, adaptation to and integration into a global geographical context.</p> José María García Redondo Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-10-20 2021-10-20 10 2 e018 e018 10.3989/chdj.2021.018 Cartography in dispute: the frontiers of Brazil in Abbé Raynal’s Histoire des Deux Indes <p>This article analyzes the frontier line(s) of Brazil proposed by the Portuguese ambassadors (D. Vicente de Sousa Coutinho, D. Rodrigo de Sousa Coutinho, and Luís de Sousa Coutinho, the Viscount of Balsemão), drawn on maps and documents sent to Abbé Raynal when he was preparing the 1780 edition of his famous&nbsp;<em>Histoire des Deux Indes</em>. This was accompanied by an&nbsp;<em>Atlas de Toutes les Parties Connues du Globe Terrestre</em>, produced by the French geographer Rigobert Bonne. The objective is, in light of the Treaty of Santo Ildefonso, to compare the lines defended by the ambassadors and those which Raynal and Bonne drew on the map of South America in the&nbsp;<em>Atlas</em>, analyzing the geopolitical impacts.</p> Junia Ferreira Furtado Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-10-20 2021-10-20 10 2 e019 e019 10.3989/chdj.2021.019 Mapping Skies and Continents: The Production of Two Portuguese Scientific Atlases in the Era of Napoleonic Expansion (1799-1813) <p>To what extend the circulation of scientific knowledge was shaped by the European imperial geopolitics in the late-eighteenth century? Recruited to fulfill tasks increasingly considered essential to the very workings of imperial administrations, scientific practitioners of the time paradoxically seem to make use precisely of this encroachment in state apparatuses to secure some degree of autonomy for their nascent field. Thus, every material form of circulation of scientific information must be ultimately understood as an act of political consequences. Here we present these ideas through the analysis of two concrete scientific artifacts, which can exemplify the circulation of scientific information inside and across empires: two atlases, one terrestrial and one celestial (the latter being a version of Flamsteed’s famous atlas of 1729, by way of intermediate French editions), produced in Portugal at the turn of the nineteenth century. Discarding the simple assumption that such cartographic artifacts might have a “utilitarian” use to Portuguese imperial administration, we aim to insist on their political and communicative nature, grounded on their modes of participation in trans-imperial pathways of circulation of knowledge, people, practices, and models of scientific authority (entangling Britain, France, and the Americas in multiple time scales). We also highlight how the atlases contribute to the affirmation of new patriotic science in Portugal, and explore the markedly didactic vocation of both objects, which also stress the question of the recruitment and reproduction of a new kind of imperial elite.</p> Iris Kantor Thomás A. S. Haddad Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-10-20 2021-10-20 10 2 e020 e020 10.3989/chdj.2021.020 Personal Empires: Mapping, Local Networks, and the Control of Land in the Lower Mississippi Valley <p>The Louisiana and Florida territories sat at the intersection of empires in the late eighteenth century. Between 1750 and 1820 the area was controlled by the French and Spanish empires, the emerging United States of America, as well as the Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole nations. While political surveys produced images of the moving borders between sovereign powers, cadastral surveys show the constancy of local landowners. Landowners superseded national distinction and were a constant in an area in the midst of great change. As control of the region shifted, landowning families continued their way of life. The continued circulation of Spanish cadastral surveys after the transfer of the region to the United States of America shows how Spanish spatial representations of property ownership shaped the image of the Lower Mississippi Valley.</p> Matthew E. Franco Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-10-20 2021-10-20 10 2 e021 e021 10.3989/chdj.2021.021