Culture & History Digital Journal <p><strong>Culture &amp; History Digital Journal</strong> is a scientific journal published by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto de Historia</a> at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CCHS</a>, aimed to contribute to the methodological debate among historians and other scholars specialized in the fields of Human and Social Sciences, at an international level.</p> <p>Using an interdisciplinary and transversal approach, this journal poses a renovation of the studies on the past, relating them and dialoguing with the present, breaking the traditional forms of thinking based on chronology, diachronic analysis, and the classical facts and forms of thinking based exclusively on textual and documental analysis. By doing so, this journal aims to promote not only new subjects of History, but also new forms of addressing its knowledge.</p> <p>Founded in 2012, it was born directly as an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. The final version of some selected articles may be published in advance, immediately upon acceptance and correction.</p> <p><strong>Culture &amp; History Digital Journal</strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> / Social Sciences Edition (JCR), <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Social Sciences Citation Index</a> (SSCI) y <a title="A&amp;HCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Arts &amp; Humanities Citation Index</a> (A&amp;HCI); <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators), <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ERIH Plus</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2022 (2 years): <strong>0.300</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2022 (5 years): <strong>0.300</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF:</strong> <strong>77</strong>/101 (Q4, History)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2022: <strong>0.56</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>225</strong>/500 (Q2, History)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2022: <strong>0.00023</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2022: <strong>0.266</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> History<br />Source: © University of Washington©, <a title="EigenFACTOR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en-US Culture & History Digital Journal 2253-797X <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. The Uncertain Atlantic: African and European Transformations of São Tomé Island c. 1533 <p>As the first European colony to specialize in sugar cultivation using a labor force comprised exclusively of enslaved Africans, São Tomé island in the Gulf of Guinea is often considered the birthplace of the sugar plantation complex. But the rise of sugar cultivation there took place amidst deep uncertainties. This essay examines a previously unstudied sixteenth-century São Tomé estate inventory from the vantage points of merchants and officials on São Tomé and in Portugal, and to the extent possible, of the Africans they exploited. Without disputing the economic importance of sugar or that of key sites such as São Tomé for later Atlantic histories, we call attention to contingencies that included the waning fortunes of certain planters and their implications for the enslaved; slave routes’ subordination to changing political dynamics on the African mainland; and evidence of African resistance ranging from litigation to escape to maroon wars that threatened sugar production, the slave trade, and the viability of Portuguese rule on the island. During the 1520s-1530s many parties had a stake in the island’s future, and the rise of sugar was by no means a foreordained outcome.</p> Gabriel de Avilez Rocha David Wheat Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 12 2 e016 e016 10.3989/chdj.2023.016 O Engenho de açúcar: André João Antonil and the Anatomy of the Seventeenth-Century Brazilian Slave Plantation <p>Jesuit João André Antonil’s&nbsp;<em>Cultura e Opulência do Brasil</em>&nbsp;is perhaps the first comprehensive treatise on slave plantation agriculture in the Americas. However, it is neither a manual nor an economic analysis. Rather, it is a moral and ethical guide for the administration of a sugar mill. This article examines the concepts, categories of thought, structures of meaning, and interpretive strategies through which Antonil comprehends the process of commodity production for the world market on the slave&nbsp;<em>engenho</em>. Antonil’s conceptual horizon was constrained by the Jesuit synthesis of Aristotelean thought and post-Tridentine Christian doctrine and the conception of the Last Judgement as the end of historical time. Consequently, he could not conceptualize the modernity of Atlantic slavery, the world market, and the plantation as a new temporality. Instead, he analyzes the&nbsp;<em>engenho</em>&nbsp;through the Aristotelean concept of&nbsp;<em>oikos</em>&nbsp;or household. The categories of thought and action through which Antonil comprehends the slave plantation and world market reveal the contradictory relation between slave production and the world market in the Iberian Atlantic.</p> Dale Tomich Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 12 2 e017 e017 10.3989/chdj.2023.017 Liquid Geographies of Transatlantic Slavery: Caribbean Pathways of Forced Migration, 1580-1640 <p>Slave transshipment and resale routes within the Spanish Caribbean were a fundamental part of the Atlantic slave trade. Enslaved Africans brought to the region during the late XVI and first half of the XVII century were forcibly made to traverse multiple circum-Caribbean points throughout their lives in a continuous process of de-racination, re-commodification, and forced mobility. Maritime regional slave routes linked seemingly marginal locations in the Caribbean like Cumaná, Margarita, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, or Trujillo with wider regional flows of peoples, capital, and commodities, as well as with the circulation in the larger Atlantic. Veracruz and Cartagena each served as an axis for these regional slave transshipment and resale routes, while Havana and Cartagena both functioned as re-shipment springboards for Veracruz.</p> Jennifer Wolff Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 12 2 e018 e018 10.3989/chdj.2023.018 The Making of a Slave-Trading Entrepôt: Rio de Janeiro in the Economic Spaces of Mining, 1565-1763 <p>This work explores the making of Rio de Janeiro as a key supplier of enslaved Africans to the silver and gold mining areas of Latin America over the early modern period. The city became a critical component of the South Atlantic system during the long seventeenth century, supplying captives to Spanish America in exchange for Peruvian silver. In the following century, it became an essential part of the Brazilian gold boom that radically transformed Portuguese America. The article discusses the role of coerced Amerindian and African labor in the creation of the basic city structures that allowed for the reproduction of those connections to mining zones and reflects on the broader meanings of this story, framing the specific history of Rio de Janeiro within the broader context of a capitalist world economy.</p> Leonardo Marques Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 12 2 e019 e019 10.3989/chdj.2023.019 Managing the Slave Trade: the Accounts of the Angola Contract between 1597-1600 <p>This article analyses the management of the 1594-1600 Angola Contract signed by the Portuguese merchants João Nunes Correia, Manuel Fernandes Anjo, and André Lopes Pinto, which regulated the extraction of slaves to America and the taxation system applied. Our current knowledge of such contracts is superficial, particularly for the 16th century, and even more so is our understanding of the management and the accounts of these agreements, which have not been preserved. The documents pertaining to litigation between the contractors and their handler in Angola, the accounts of which are partially preserved for the years between 1597 and 1600 in the Historical Protocols Archive in Madrid, enable us to gain a better understanding of the working of the Contract.</p> Manuel F. Fernández Chaves Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 12 2 e020 e020 10.3989/chdj.2023.020 The Gold Mining Boom, North European Capital, and the Reorganization of the Portuguese Slave Trade in Angola (1710-1730) <p>The article explores the reorganization of the Portuguese slave trade in Angola in the early eighteenth century when an upsurge in traffic took place along with a gold mining boom in Brazil. The appearance of a new group in the administration of the Angola contract, with the political support of the Crown and the financial assistance of merchants connected to London stimulated the expansion of the slaving frontier into Benguela. A large part of the historiography has interpreted this growth of the slave trade in Benguela as a phenomenon produced by local or “internal” developments of the Portuguese empire. My argument is that this shift was related to the international development of capitalism. The growing international competition over slave markets in the Gulf of Guinea and Loango pushed Portuguese authorities and slave traders to focus on the traffic in the areas to the south of Luanda. This process was financed by international credit networks and played a central role in the establishment of a new slaving frontier that supplied captives to the Brazilian goldfields.</p> Maximiliano M. Menz Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 12 2 e021 e021 10.3989/chdj.2023.021 Population and Slavery in Vila Rica de Ouro Preto (1712-1770) <p>The discovery of gold at the end of the 17th century and of diamonds during the 1730s in central-southern Brazil caused profound dislocation in the slave trades, turning the Minas Gerais region into an unprecedented pole of attraction for migrant and slave labor. In this work, we perform a sociodemographic analysis of the slave population in Vila Rica de Ouro Preto, the capital of the captaincy of Minas Gerais, in a period ranging from 1712 to 1770. For this purpose, and based on previous literature, we use the data series gathered from the two parishes that made up the urban geography of the region, as well as the notarial records preserved at the Arquivo Histórico do Museu da Inconfidência - Casa do Pilar. The reconstruction of families and the study of the relationship between the sociodemographic data of the slave contingent and those of the rest of the population, the processes of manumission, and the evolution of the slave import market have allowed us to prove the dependence of the slave population on slave trade.</p> Eduardo Corona Pérez Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 12 2 e022 e022 10.3989/chdj.2023.022 Publishing Le Parfait Ambassadeur for Richelieu: the Translation of Vera’s El Enbaxador in Early Modern Europe <p>The central years of Richelieu’s government saw a notable increase in the number of political treatises published in Paris after the&nbsp;<em>Journée des Dupes</em>&nbsp;in 1630. Such treatises not only reflected the cardinal’s ideas on political practice but also served to justify them.&nbsp;<span class="tooltip"><em>El Enbaxador</em>&nbsp;(1620)</span>&nbsp;was the first treatise on the ambassadorial office ever written in Spanish, produced at the end of the reign of Felipe III by Juan Antonio de Vera, a nobleman, writer and future ambassador of the Spanish Monarchy. When published in French as&nbsp;<span class="tooltip"><em>Le Parfait Ambassadeur</em>&nbsp;in 1635</span>, it resonated with the political debate in Richelieu’s entourage. Significantly, the text was addressed to Abel Servien, secretary of state for war and main collaborator of the cardinal minister. The translation operation, which involved remarkable adaptations, reveals the compatibility between Vera’s treatise and the aforementioned political debate. The French translation of 1635 was also instrumental to the dissemination of&nbsp;<em>El Enbaxador</em>&nbsp;in early modern Europe, since the later editions in French and Italian, five in total, depend on it. Interestingly, the European fortunes of&nbsp;<em>El Enbaxador</em>&nbsp;can be explained by its readings as a treatise on political education, a handbook for ambassadors and an outstanding text of the Republic of Letters.</p> María Concepción Gutiérrez Redondo Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 12 2 e023 e023 10.3989/chdj.2023.023 Art Facing the Problem of Otherness, with Reference to the Interwar Literature of Annemarie Schwarzenbach (1908-1942) <p>The work of Annemarie Schwarzenbach (1908-1942) is an interesting illustration of the power of representing the struggles of the inner world in literature. In her work, the whole problem of otherness is evident, which is largely resolved through literary activity, in a woman who assumed in herself a marginal otherness due to her gender, her sexual identity, and for having been admitted for psychiatric treatment on more than one occasion during her life. But, beyond the individual aspect, her novels also provide a valuable account of the feelings of the interwar generation, an intellectual and artistic group that experienced the taste of modernity during the brief period between World War I and Hitler’s uprising. The author took part in this exodus and, in this case, literature was an important means of collective endurance. Delving into both aspects, we witness a reflection, perhaps old, but full of associations with our present society.</p> Miriam Baquero Leyva Ana Conseglieri Rafael Huertas Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 12 2 e024 e024 10.3989/chdj.2023.024 Remembering the Gender and Sexual Archive of the Black Diaspora in Tunisia: a Decolonial Approach to Historical Anthropology <p>The available studies on the cultural history of the Black diasporas in the Ottoman Mediterranean have focused on religious and other cultural manifestations, leaving out the inquiry about notions and practices related to gender and sexuality. Taking a cue from works on the Black Atlantic and the African continent, this article investigates the notions of gender and sexuality underlying the sub-Saharan worldviews and offers a template to interpret the subjecthood of enslaved sub-Saharans in the Maghribi diaspora. The first part of the essay lays out a historical contextualisation of the Black diaspora in early nineteenth-century Tunis. Then I take the reference to the practice of al-musāḥaqa (lesbianism) among the Black slaves in an 1808 Arabic manuscript as a starting point to investigate, by surveying different anthropological studies, whether al-musāḥaqa can be thought of as pertaining to the archive of sexual epistemology which the enslaved would have taken to Tunisia and, more importantly, to enquire into how we can understand it within a non-anthropocentric historical cosmology-which, ultimately, can contribute to the necessary decolonisation of feminist and queer studies, and history and anthropology more generally.</p> Itzea Goikolea-Amiano Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 12 2 e025 e025 10.3989/chdj.2023.025 Introduction: The Iberian Atlantic and the Making of the Modern World Dale W. Tomich Leonardo Marques Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 12 2 e015 e015 10.3989/chdj.2023.015