Culture & History Digital Journal <p><strong>Culture &amp; History Digital Journal</strong> is a scientific journal published by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto de Historia</a> at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CCHS</a>, aimed to contribute to the methodological debate among historians and other scholars specialized in the fields of Human and Social Sciences, at an international level.</p> <p>Using an interdisciplinary and transversal approach, this journal poses a renovation of the studies on the past, relating them and dialoguing with the present, breaking the traditional forms of thinking based on chronology, diachronic analysis, and the classical facts and forms of thinking based exclusively on textual and documental analysis. By doing so, this journal aims to promote not only new subjects of History, but also new forms of addressing its knowledge.</p> <p>Founded in 2012, it was born directly as an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. The final version of some selected articles may be published in advance, immediately upon acceptance and correction.</p> <p><strong>Culture &amp; History Digital Journal</strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> / Social Sciences Edition (JCR), <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Social Sciences Citation Index</a> (SSCI) y <a title="A&amp;HCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Arts &amp; Humanities Citation Index</a> (A&amp;HCI); <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators), <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ERIH Plus</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2021 (2 years): <strong>0.195</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2021 (5 years): <strong>n/a</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF:</strong> <strong>94</strong>/102 (Q4, History)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2021: <strong>0.79</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>177</strong>/491 (Q2, History)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2021: <strong>0.00038</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2021: <strong>0.422</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> History<br />Source: © University of Washington©, <a title="EigenFACTOR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en-US Culture & History Digital Journal 2253-797X <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. (No) “solo Madrid es Corte?”: the head that governs an empire of Courts <p>In his&nbsp;<em>Libro Histórico Político, Solo Madrid es Corte</em>&nbsp;(1658), the royal chronicler Alonso Núñez de Castro, defined Court as the head that governs; where reason and the king (as head of his kingdoms) his councilors, vassals, and other important men reside. Núñez, emphasized Madrid’s population, listed its councils and described their functions, in detail explained the etiquette observed around the King’ body, and included the hierarchy of all his kingdoms and provinces in the Spanish Habsburg empire, offering detailed accounts of their finances and contributions to the royal treasure. The work, in fact, established the imperial space (and geography) of the larger Spanish Habsburg political body, with Madrid as its courtly and political-cultural head. In its structure and arguments, Núñez’s work followed principles established at the end of the 16<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;century by Giovanni Botero as characteristic of a great city and in works describing the greatness of Lima and of the city of Mexico. A comparison of Madrid with other courtly cities of the Spanish Habsburg Empire helps elucidate reasons for its low profile as referent in the documentation of the New World, despite its place after 1561, as the political-administrative head of the empire.</p> Alejandra B. Osorio Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 11 1 e002 e002 10.3989/chdj.2022.002 Italian Madrid: Ambassadors, Regents, and Courtiers in the Hospital de San Pedro y San Pablo <p>The Court…, more accurately, the city where the Court resided, was a microcosm of the Monarchy that was governed from it. That was the case in Madrid. This paper deals with a little-known institution, the Hospital and the Church of the Italians, analysing above all its transformation in the 17<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;century through two important documents, the personal diary of a Neapolitan regent and a record of a conflict of powers between the Council of Italy and the nunciature in Madrid containing the hospital’s founding documents.</p> Manuel Rivero Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 11 1 e003 e003 10.3989/chdj.2022.003 Residences as instruments of power: Venetian ambassadors’ houses in Madrid during the reigns of Philip IV and Charles II <p>Against the traditional vision, the relations between the Spanish Monarchy and the Republic of Venice improved significantly during the second half of the 17<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;century. Once again, the war against the Ottomans in Candia (1645-1669) forced the&nbsp;<em>Serenissima</em>&nbsp;to look for the support of the Catholic King. For this reason, the role played by their ambassadors in Madrid, with a view to achieve the necessary assistance of Philip IV, became essential for the Venetian interests. At the same time, they pursued to ensure a relevant and closer position to the principal nucleus of power in the Spanish court. Accordingly, the continuous disputes with the members of the Spanish institutions with regard to their lodging become an essential field of study to measure the degree of influence, supremacy or immunity of these legates during the reigns of the two last monarchs of the House of Austria.</p> David Quiles Albero Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 11 1 e004 e004 10.3989/chdj.2022.004 Diplomacy and Noble Culture: the 10 th Admiral of Castile and the Extraordinary Embassy of the Duke of Gramont in Madrid <p>The marriage of Louis XIV of France and Maria Theresa of Spain sanctioned the end of the Franco-Spanish war (1635-1659). The terms of the peace treaty and the marriage agreement were the result of a long negotiation which conclude with the extraordinary embassy sent to Madrid, led by Antoine III Gramont, marshal of France and duke of Gramont. In this article, we examine different aspects of the entry, reception and regalement of the French embassy at the court of Philip IV. For this purpose, we have considered an extensive corpus of textual sources (accounts, diaries, memories, poetical compositions and archival documents) that supply information about those events. We have focused our attention on the role played by the nobility -in particular, by Juan Gaspar Enríquez de Cabrera, 10<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;Admiral of Castile-, considering at the same time the relevant function of the material culture in early modern diplomacy.</p> Cristina Agüero Carnerero Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 11 1 e005 e005 10.3989/chdj.2022.005 Baron of Bertier’s embassy to Madrid and the construction of the diplomatic network of Elector Maximilian II Emanuel of Bavaria (1695-1696) <p>Elector Maximilian II Emanuel of Bavaria’s marriage to Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria gave him a central role in the complex context of Charles II of Spain’s succession. To achieve his main goals and, ultimately, the Spanish succession for his son Joseph Ferdinand, the elector needed to have a strong diplomatic network at Madrid’s court that could defend his interests. But Bavaria had not had an important presence in the court of the Spanish Monarchy before, so the elector and his main collaborators needed to build a powerful network in the court of Madrid, unconnected to Emperor Leopold I, practically from the ground up. To do it, the elector sent to Madrid in 1695 one of his most treasured diplomats, Pierre, baron of Bertier. In the following pages, we will analyze the background of the diplomatic relationship between Bavaria and the Spanish Monarchy before Charles II’s reign, how the elector’s envoys communicated with the members of a court where there were almost no precedents whatsoever of a steady presence of Bavarian ambassadors and how they built a very important network for their master with the help of the queen mother, Mariana of Austria.</p> Rocío Martínez López Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 11 1 e006 e006 10.3989/chdj.2022.006 The Cloistered Ambassador: non-European Agents in the Convents of Madrid (1585-1701) <p>In line with its medieval predecessors, the Habsburg court had no particular problem in receiving representatives from outside the Christendom’s framework. Until 1580 these usually included Maghrebi envoys with an ambiguous status and without a notable diplomatic presence. Subsequently, the aggregation of the crown of Portugal to the Spanish Monarchy and the ceremonial standardization that gradually took place led, on the one hand, to the arrival of African and Asian agents of a different profile, with whom there was less familiarity, and on the other, to an attempt to assign them to the existing diplomatic categories. Among the numerous problems of Madrid as a reception centre for “exotic embassies,” we will look at the use of the city’s monasteries as accommodation for some of these agents and their entourage. Instead of being offered houses, these individuals were left in a provisional situation in accordance with their dubious diplomatic status, a policy that triggered problems of public order and decorum because of their difficult coexistence with the monastic communities. These and other monasteries played a further role as places of sociability and exchange for people who were not accustomed to such institutions. This will provide a glimpse into the complementarity between palaces and monasteries in a strongly confessionalised court and, paradoxically, into a kind of ceremonial flexibility that bordered on tolerance.</p> Rubén González-Cuerva Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 11 1 e007 e007 10.3989/chdj.2022.007 Female Agents at the Royal Palace of Madrid: Political Interests, Favors and Gifts (ca. 1598-1640) <p>The rise of the New Diplomatic History in the late twentieth century led to a methodological revolution altering the foundations of traditional historiography.<span class="tooltip"><a id="fn2a" href="#fn2"><sup>2</sup></a></span>&nbsp;One of the principal consequences were a new recognition that there were multiple sorts of diplomatic agents that included artists, businessmen, men of the church, travelers, and women. It is this last group to which we devote this essay. In this paper we will analyze several case studies in order to offer a general perspective of the mechanisms used by these female agents so as to establish a pattern of behavior. We will focus on aristocratic women at the Madrid court during the reign of Philip III and Philip IV in order to know how the foreign ambassadors approached these women seeking information. These women get in return gifts and&nbsp;<em>mercedes</em>&nbsp;for them, their families and members of their patronage networks. Finally, we will study the multiple fidelities developed by female agents.</p> Alejandra Franganillo Álvarez Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 11 1 e008 e008 10.3989/chdj.2022.008 Women’s Contributions to Biomedical Healthcare in Ghana: A Focus on Obuasi <p>From economic, through politics to domestic support, women have been the major engineers of valuable roles towards the development of every culture. Historically, their impacts in medicine and healthcare in general have been evident across time and space. Prior to European influx and the modernization of healthcare in Ghana, women delivered such roles that simulate that of modern midwives, nurses, herbalists and priestesses. Although, denied access to formal education in the colonial days, because of cultural reasons, women have risen to occupy central stages in biomedical services. Regardless of their numerical strength and contributions towards the provision of healthcare, they have been neglected and marginalized both within the society and by scholars. Significantly, the place of Obuasi, in particular, within the literature on women’s contribution to healthcare delivery has received little attention. Dwelling on a qualitative research approach grounded in both primary and secondary data, the current study attempted a prime discourse on the contribution of women in the biomedical spheres using the Obuasi community as a case study. The current study has revealed that women as nurses and midwives work toward reducing child mortality and improvement of maternal health. Also, we have analyzed the challenges women face within the biomedical sphere as nurses and midwives.</p> Samuel Adu-Gyamfi Benjamin Dompreh Darkwa Regina Adwoa Agyeiwaa Boateng Lucky Tomdi Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 11 1 e009 e009 10.3989/chdj.2022.009 The construction of a web narrative about the Portuguese colonial war: a critical perspective on Wikipedia <p>As part of recent research into the Portuguese colonial war in the sphere of memory studies, this article seeks to fill a gap in the underexplored field of digital memories. It aims, firstly, to explore the processes through which discourses about the Portuguese colonial war are produced in the Portuguese version of Wikipedia, looking at its dynamics and mechanisms of construction, including formal and informal rules; and secondly, to analyse that discourse using theoretical and methodological considerations from critical discourse analysis (CDA), complemented with concepts of absence and silence, which enable a reflection on the relationship between power, knowledge and memory. The article also explores the limits of Wikipedia as regards the formation of collaborative narratives about the past, arguing that they are marked by the reproduction of Eurocentric narratives which circulate in political, educational and media discourses, and also by the memories of more conservative sectors of Portuguese society, such as war veterans and former settlers returning from the colonies (the so-called&nbsp;<em>retornados</em>). These narratives mask the colonial violence and resistance to it that preceded the colonial war and depoliticize the struggle of the national liberation movements.</p> Verónica Ferreira Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 11 1 e010 e010 10.3989/chdj.2022.010 Aesthetics, economy and printing in the eighteenth century: the catalogue of Giambattista Bodoni and his patron José Nicolás de Azara <p>This article addresses and documents the influence of the economic variable on the production of one of the most outstanding typographers in the history of the book, Giambattista Bodoni, who was famous for his books to the 18<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;century European bibliophile elite. Three main financing channels are distinguished in his catalog, resulting various types of editions, and this perspective of analysis shows the relevance of the Spanish patron José Nicolás de Azara in Bodoni’s work. But Azara did not only leave his mark on Bodoni’s catalog by promoting bibliographic projects; also by advising the typographer to achieve examples of the&nbsp;<em>beautiful book,</em>&nbsp;which should balance in his opinion its functionality with its aesthetic waste, that was always directly proportional to the economic cost. As a conclusion, the article confirms the prominence of patronage -especially Azara’s- even in Bodoni’s art of printing along the transition from the Eighteenth to the Nineteenth century.</p> Noelia López-Souto Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 11 1 e011 e011 10.3989/chdj.2022.011 Mad houses, Writing and Madness in the Spanish Silver Age <p>The authors of naturalism and the avant-garde in Spain attach great importance to illness and especially mental illness and mad houses. The vision of the mental asylum is presented in the literary mirrors of three authors - with very different biography - who wrote in the first decades of the 20<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;century, in their writings the presentation of the asylum, considered successively as punishment, as experience and as liberation, is changing. Antonio Hoyos y Vinent, Alfonso Vidal y Planas and Andrés Valentín Álvarez y Álvarez are mainly studied.</p> José Luis Peset Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 11 1 e012 e012 10.3989/chdj.2022.012 Madrid as an urban nexus for seventeenth-century diplomacy Diana Carrió-Invernizzi Consuelo Gómez Ángel Aterido Jeremy Roe Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 11 1 e001 e001 10.3989/chdj.2022.001