Institutionalizing cultural Europeanism: between transnationalism and national identity (1948-1954)

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3989/chdj.2021.009

Keywords:

Europeanism, Culture, Transnational, Anti-communism, European Movement, Intergovernmentalism

Abstract


Cultural Europeanism is a variant of the process of European integration attested within the framework of the Cold War. It will be mostly anti-communist, although it will couch elements favouring West-East dialogue. The governments will promote an intergovernmental model based on multilateral cooperation and national identity, and put into practice in institutions such as the Western Union or the Council of Europe. Non-governmental organizations, such as the European Movement, will be committed to a more transnational model based on the affirmation and promotion of the idea of Europe through institutions such as the College of Europe, the European Centre for Culture or the European Cultural Foundation. Within cultural Europeanism, networks of secondary institutionalization, such as educational seminars, ended up having as much or more impact than the primary entities from which they emerged.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Aubourg, V. (2003) “Organizing Atlanticism: The Bilderberg Group and the Atlantic Institute, 1952-1963”. Intelligence and National Security, 18 (2), pp. 92-105.

Aubourg, V. (2010) “The Bilderberg Group: Promoting European Governance inside an Atlantic Community of Values”. In: W. Kaiser, B. Leucht and M. Gehler, ed., Transnational Networks in Regional Integration: Governing Europe 1945-83. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 38-60.

Barnavi, É. and Pomian, K. (2008) La Révolution européenne (1945-2007). Paris: Perrin.

Beckert, S. (2006) “AHR Conversation: On Transnational History”. In “AHR Conversation: On Transnational History” participated by Ch. A. Bayly, S. Beckert, M. Connelly, I. Hofmeyr, W. Kozol and P. Seed. The American Historical Review, 111 (5), pp. 1441-1464.

Bossuat, G. (1997) “L’impossible Europe des socialistes au Conseil de l’Europe”. In: M.-Th. Bitsch, ed., Jalons pour une histoire du Conseil de l´Europe. Berna: Peter Lang, pp. 249-276.

Brunner, J. (2010) “Le Conseil de l’Europe à la recherche d’une politique culturelle européenne, 1949-1968”. In: R. Frank, H. Kaelble, M.-F. Lévy and L. Passerini, eds., Building a European Public Sphere: From the 1950s to the Present. Bruxelles: Peter Lang, pp. 161-177.

Castells, M. (1999) La Era de la información. Economía, sociedad y cultura. Vol. II. El poder de la identidad. Madrid: Alianza Editorial.

Charle, Ch., Schriewer, J. and Wagner, P., eds. (2004) Transnational Intellectual Networks. Forms of Academic Knowledge and the Search for Cultural Identities. Frankfurt and New York: University of Chicago Press.

Chenaux, Ph. (1990) Une Europe Vaticane? Entre le Plan Marshall et les Traités de Rome. Bruxelles: Editions Ciaco.

Coupland, Ph. M. (2004) “Western Union, ‘‘Spiritual Union’’ and European Integration, 1948-1951”, Journal of British Studies, 43, pp. 366-394.

Deering, M. J. (1991) Combats acharnés: Denis de Rougemont et les fondements de l’unité européenne. Lausanne: Fondation Jean Monnet pour l’Europe.

Dongen, L., Roulin, St. and Scott-Smith, G. eds. (2014) Transnational Anticommunism and the Cold War: Agents, Activities, Networks. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Duranti, M. (2017) The Conservative Human Rights Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Eliot, Th. S. (1948) Notes Toward a Definition of Culture. London: Faber and Faber. https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.159230/page/n3 (accessed 9/April/2019).

Geremek, B. (2007) “L’Europe en crise?”. In: B. Geremek and R. Picht, eds., Visions d´Europe. Paris: Odile Jacob, pp. 9-28.

Gienow-Hecht, J.C.E. and Donfried, M. C. (2010) Searching for a Cultural Diplomacy. Explorations in Culture and International History. New York/Oxford: Berghahn Books.

Gijswijt, Th. W. (2007) Uniting the West: The Bilderberg Group, the Cold War, and European Integration 1952-1966. Heidelberg: Dissertation Universität Heidelberg.

Guillen, P. (1997) “Le Conseil de l´Europe et la «construction culturelle» de l´Europe, de sa création à la fin des années soixante”. In: M.-Th. Bitsch, ed., Jalons pour une histoire du Conseil de l´Europe. Berna: Peter Lang, pp. 325-337.

Haigh, A. (1974) Cultural Diplomacy in Europe. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Harris, S. M. (2016) The CIA and the Congress for Cultural Freedom in the Early Cold War: The limits of making common cause. New York and London: Routledge.

Hässing, C. (2009) “Deux protagonistes genevois face à l’éclatement de l’Europe: les Rencontres internationales de Genève et le Centre européen de la culture”. In: A. Fleury and L. Jilek, eds., Une Europe malgré tout 1945-1990. Contacts et réseaux culturels, intellectuels et scientifiques entre Européens dans la guerre froide. Bruxelles: Peter Lang, pp. 105-124.

Hibbitt, R., ed. (2017) Other Capitals of the Nineteenth Century: An Alternative Mapping of Literary and Cultural Space. Leeds: Palgrave Macmillan.

Jachec, N. (2015) Europe´s Intellectuals and the Cold War. The European Society of Culture, Post-War Politics and International Relations. London-New York: I.B. Tauris.

Kaiser, W. (2009) “Transnational networks in European governance: the informal politics of integration”. In: W. Kaiser, B. Leucht and M. Rasmussen, eds., The History of the European Union. Origins of a trans-and supranational polity 1950-72. London: Routledge/UACES contemporary European studies, no. 7, pp. 12-33.

Kaiser, W., Leucht, B. and Rasmussen, M. (2009) “Origins of a European polity. A new research agenda for European Union history”. In: W. Kaiser, B. Leucht and M. Rasmussen, eds., The History of the European Union. Origins of a trans-and supranational polity 1950-72. London: Routledge/UACES contemporary European studies, no. 7, pp. 1-11.

Klos, F. (2016) Churchill’s Last Stand: The Struggle to Unite Europe. London: I.B. Tauris.

Kratochvíl, P. and Doležal, T. (2011) The European Union and the Catholic Church. Political Theology of European Integration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Laos, N. (2011) Foundations of Cultural Diplomacy: Politics Among Cultures and the Moral Autonomy of Man. New York: Algora Publishing.

Laville, H. and Wilford, H. eds. (2006) The US Government, Citizen Groups and the Cold War: The State-Private Network. London: Routledge.

Leustean, L. N. (2014) The Ecumenical Movement & the Making of the European Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lindkvist, L. (2017) Religious Freedom and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lipgens, W., ed., (1985, 1986, 1988 and 1991), Documents on the History of European Integration, vol. I «Continental Plans for European Union 1939-1945»; vol. II Plans for European union in Great Britain and in exile 1939–1945; and Loth, W., ed., vol. III The struggle for European union by political parties and pressure groups in Western European countries 1945 1950; and Loth, W., ed., vol. IV. Transnational Organizations of Political Parties and Pressure Groups in the Struggle for European Union, 1945-1950. Berlín and Nueva York: De Gruyter.

Lucas, W. S. (2002) “Mobilizing Culture: the State-Private Network and the CIA in the Early Cold War”. In: D. Carter and R. Clifton, eds., War and Cold War in American Foreign Policy 1942- 1962. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 83-107.

Lucas, W. S. (2003) “Total Culture and the State-Private Network: A Commentary”. In: J. Gienow-Hecht and F. Schumacher, Culture and International History. New York: Berghahn, pp. 206-214.

Lukina, A. (2017) Soviet Union and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Max Planck Institute for European Legal History Research Paper Series, 01. Munchen: Max Planck Institute. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2952292 [accessed 12 April 2019]

McMurry, R. and Lee, M. (1947) The Cultural Approach. Another way in International Relations. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Milward, A. S. (1984) The reconstruction of Western Europe, 1945- 51. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Milward, A. S. (2000 [1992]) The European Rescue of the Nation State. London: Routledge.

Morsink, J. (1999) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Origins, Drafting & Intent. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Nelsen, B. F. and Guth, J. L. (2015) Religion and the Struggle for European Union: Confessional Culture and the Limits of Integration. Washington D.C: George Town University Press.

Raflik, J. (2009) “Le traité de Bruxelles, prelude à la construction atlantique ou veritable étape de la construction européenne?”. In : Guieu, J.-M. and Le Dréau, Ch., ed., Le “Congrès de l’Europe” à La Haye (1948-2008). Bruxelles: Peter Lang, pp. 67-78.

Rougemont, D. de (1959) “Tomando conciencia de Europa”. In: La mesa redonda de Europa. Zaragoza: Sagitario.

Royce, M. R. (2017) The Political Theology of European Integration: Comparing the Influence of Religious Histories on European Policies. Springfield: Palgrave Macmillan.

Saunier, P.-Y. (2013) Transnational History. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Schivelbusch, W. (2007) Three New Deals: Reflections on Roosevelt’s America, Mussolini’s Italy, and Hitler’s Germany, 1933- 1939. New York: Metropolitan Books.

Scott-Smith, G. and Krabbendam, H., eds. (2004) The Cultural Cold War in Western Europe, 1945-1960 (Studies in Intelligence). London: Routledge.

Sidjanski, D. (1968) “Rapport sur la Communauté Universitaire Européenne”. In: C. J. Friedrich, ed., Politische dimensionen der Europäische Gemeinschaftsbildung. Köln und Opladen: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, pp. 105-224.

Stenger, N. (2015) Denis de Rougemont. Les intellectuels et l’Europe au XXe siècle. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.

Stonor Saunders, F. (1999) Who Paid the Piper? The CIA and the Cultural Cold War. London: Granta Books.

Taylor, R. (2006) Film Propaganda: Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany. London: I.B. Tauris.

Topić, M. and Rodin, S. (2012) Cultural Diplomacy and Cultural Imperialism: European Perspective(s). Brussels: Peter Lang.

Welch, D., ed. (2015) Nazi Propaganda: The Power and the Limitations. London: Routledge.

Published

2021-04-29

How to Cite

Domínguez Castro, L. ., & Rodríguez Lago, J. R. . (2021). Institutionalizing cultural Europeanism: between transnationalism and national identity (1948-1954). Culture &Amp; History Digital Journal, 10(1), e009. https://doi.org/10.3989/chdj.2021.009

Issue

Section

Articles

Funding data

Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación
Grant numbers PGC2018-095884-B-C21