Authorship identification

This Journal applies the ORCID® persistent digital identifier as a way to ensure proper authorship normalization.

Authorship contribution

Research articles must include the "CRediT taxonomy" to enhance recognition and facilitate transparency in authorship. This entails identifying the role played by each signing author through roles that describe the contribution made by each member. In articles with multiple authors, roles must be agreed upon by all parties. When authored by a single individual, the roles reflected will be determined by the author of the text. Symbolic authorships should not be included, and role assignment should be precise. Only roles performed by signing individuals should be included. Therefore, it is not mandatory to assign or distribute all CRediT roles.

The roles of the CRediT taxonomy will be provided by the person submitting to the journal. This information will appear at the end of the text and before the bibliography in the article version intended for the Editorial Board. This information should not appear in the anonymized text intended for blind peer review. Subsequently, during the editing process, the CRediT taxonomy will be integrated into the article's metadata according to various international standards.

The roles proposed by CRediT are:

Ideas; formulation or evolution of overarching research goals and aims.

Data curation
Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data and maintain research data (including software code, where it is necessary for interpreting the data itself) for initial use and later re-use.

Formal Analysis
Application of statistical, mathematical, computational, or other formal techniques to analyse or synthesize study data.

Funding acquisition
Acquisition of the financial support for the project leading to this publication.

Conducting a research and investigation process, specifically performing the experiments, or data/evidence collection.

Development or design of methodology; creation of models.

Project administration
Management and coordination responsibility for the research activity planning and execution.

Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, computing resources, or other analysis tools.

Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms; testing of existing code components.

Oversight and leadership responsibility for the research activity planning and execution, including mentorship external to the core team.

Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs.

Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically visualization/data presentation.

Writing – original draft
Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically writing the initial draft (including substantive translation).

Writing – review & editing
Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work by those from the original research group, specifically critical review, commentary or revision – including pre- or post-publication stages.